Cuba seized the properties of Cubans, Americans and other foreigners on the island starting in 1959, with the bulk of the expropriations taking place in the second half of 1960. The process started in 1959 with the Cuban government’s takeover of agricultural and cattle ranches under Cuba’s Agrarian Reform Law and reached a critical stage in July of 1960 with the promulgation of Cuban Law 851, which authorized the expropriation of the property of U.S. nationals. The remaining expropriations were carried out through several resolutions enacted by the Cuban government in the second half of 1960, and continued through 1963, when the last U.S. companies still in private hands were expropriated. In a parallel process, most assets owned by Cuban nationals, except for small parcels of land, homes, and personal items, were seized at various times between 1959 and 1968. The laws issued by the Cuban government to expropriate the holdings of U.S. nationals contained undertakings by the State to provide compensation to the owners. Nevertheless, in almost no case was actual compensation paid.